The Umbraco backoffice is built using AngularJS. The implementation is made up of many directives and services.
As of Umbraco 10, this section will no longer be updated.
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Generally, you can find information about these via the Backoffice UI API documentation. While this part of the documentation is auto-generated from the Umbraco source code, you can also find below some more in-depth description and examples for these directives and services.